ارسال شده توسط :
ایران , دماوند ایران , جواهری , علیرضا جواهری
دماوند (۵۶۷۱) از پلور در زمستان
Mount Damāvand (Persian: دماوند ) also known as Donbavand, a potentially active volcano and the highest peak in Iran, has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore. Located in the middle Alborz Range, adjacent to Varārū, Sesang, Gol-e Zard and Mīānrūd, it is the highest point in the Middle East and the highest volcano in all of Asia. It is a potentially active volcano,since there are fumaroles near the summit crater emitting sulfur, which were known to be active on July 6, 2007.The mountain is located near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in Āmol county, Māzandarān, 66 kilometres (41 miles) northeast of Tehran. Contents Symbolism and mythologyDamavand is, as any cursory reading of Persian literature will indicate, the Mount Olympus of Persian mythology.Damāvand is the symbol of Iranian resistance against despotism and foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature. In Zoroastrian texts and mythology, the three-headed dragon Aži Dahāka was chained within Mount Damāvand, there to remain until the end of the world. In a later version of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhāk was also chained in a cave somewhere in Mount Damāvand after being defeated by Kāveh and Fereydūn. Persian poet Ferdowsi depicts this event in his masterpiece, the Shahnameh:بیاورد ضحاک را چون نوند به کوه دماوند کردش ببندThe mountain is said to hold magical powers in the Shahnameh. Damāvand has also been named in the Iranian legend of Arash as the location he fired his arrow to mark the Iran border. The famous poem Damāvand by Mohammad Taqī Bahār is also one fine example of the mountain's significance in Persian literature. The first verse of this poem reads:ای دیو سپید پای در بند Ay dīve sepīde pāī dar band, Oh white demon with feet in chains ای گنبد گیتی، ای دماوند Ay gonbade gītī, ay Damāvand Oh terrestrial dome, Oh Mount DamāvandMount Damavand is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 10,000 rials banknote.  Thermal springs A fumarole near the summit of Damavand, emitting sulfurMt Damavand has some thermal springs (Abe Garm Larijan) with therapeutic qualities. These mineral hot springs are mainly located on the volcano's flanks and at the base, giving evidence of volcanic heat comparatively near the surface of the earth. While no historic eruptions have been recorded, hot springs at the base and on the flanks, and fumaroles and solfatara near the summit, indicate a hot or cooling magma body still present beneath the volcano, so that Damavand is a potentially active volcano.The most important of these hot springs are located in Abe Garm Larijan in a village by the name Larijan in the district of Larijan in Lar Valley . The water from this spring is useful in the treatment of chronic wounds and skin diseases. Near these springs there are public baths with small pools for public use. Routes to the summit Damavand volcanic crater in AugustThe best major settlement for mountain climbers is the new Iranian Mountain Federation Camp in Polour village, located on the south of the mountain.There are at least 16 known routes to the summit which have different difficulties. Some of them are very dangerous and require rock climbing. The most popular route is the Southern Route which has step stamps and also a camp midway called Bargah Sevom Camp/Shelter at 4220 m (about 13,845 ft). The longest route is the Northeastern and it takes two whole days to reach the summit starting from downhill village of Nāndal and a night stay at Takht-e Fereydoun (elevation 4300 m - about 13,000 ft), a two-story shelter. The western route is famous for its sunset view. Sīmorgh shelter in this route at 4100 m (about 13,500 ft) is a newly constructed shelter with two stories. There is a frozen waterfall/Icefall (Persian name Ābshār Yakhī)about 12m tall and the elevation of 5100m is the highest fall in Iran and Middle East.